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  Expansion of Universe

Alternate Observation of the Expansion of the Universe, as it relates to Dark Energy vrs Dark Matter.
Dateline, Vancouver, March 2019
Conjecture: Dark Matter and Dark Energy are the same thing.
Note: This story is an updated version of my balloon universe idea, but now includes a specific mechanism to make it work.

Astronomers had noticed several problems with the motion of galaxies and proposed several mechanisms to account for the problems. First, every galaxy known is rotating too fast, as if gravity was stronger than its known mass. To account for this problem they theorized invisible matter that we can't see, which they call Dark Matter. Second, the expansion of the universe seems to be speeding up, rather than slowing down, as if distant gravity started getting weaker a few billion years ago. To account for this problem they theorized invisible energy from a source we can't see, which they call Dark Energy.

Still other physisists have come up with several alternate theories to explain these anomolies, using variations on gravity and geometry. Most physisists are skeptical of these alternate plans, but so far no one has been able to identify dark matter or dark energy. I had been skeptical too, not because no one can find these dark products, but because there are simpler explanations.

My explanation is basically this: dark matter isn't needed if there is some kind of negative gravity energy in the voids between galaxies. But by its self, this won't work because any particles with negative gravity will spread out evenly through out space, rather than coalescing into the voids. This is why astronomers conjure up dark matter within the galaxy to balance out the dark energy everywhere else.

However, there's a way around the roadblock: if the negative gravity matter also has negative mass, then that matter would repel normal matter in the galaxies and coalesce into the voids. It would work like this: Positive mass matter (normal) will attract to other positive mass, forming the visible galaxies and clusters. Meanwhile, negative mass matter will attract to other negative mass, but the positive and negative matter will repel each other. This will push the negative matter out of the galaxies and into giant voids, where it will then push the galaxies into clusters.


In the trampoline analogy, a bowling ball will make an impression on the surface that will pull other objects toward it. But a negative mass will cause an upward impression, which repels normal masses but attracts other negative mass.


If this was happening, the two types of matter would work together to form well defined galaxy clusters and voids. Negative mass would slowly accumulate in the voids between galaxies, making the voids bigger and bigger. The voids would squeeze galaxies into clusters, and individual galaxies would appear to rotate too fast.

That was my conjecture, which seemed a bit far fetched, until I read a story in Sky and Telescope magazine last year. The story had diagrams of galaxy clusters versus the voids, and the geometry can't be explained by standard dark energy. Actual galaxy clusters tend to be concave on one side with a galaxy wall stretching between clusters, while the voids are more spherical. The clusters distinctly appear to be getting squished by voids.

If positive gravity was the only force at play, the clusters would be more spherical and the voids concave. It would be nearly impossible for the clusters to form a concave surface and flat walls using gravitational attraction alone. For me, this was proof enough that the dark energy geometry isn't quite right.

It seems to me that normal matter can not cause this type of geometry. So then the big question is, what kind of matter can? There are several possibilities but one in particular is very intriguing.

There are several alternate theories of gravity that give anti-particles negative gravity. For example, the Feynman–Stueckelberg interpretation of anti-particles envisions that they move in negative time. If this is interpeted litterally, it would cause anti-particles to behave as if they had negative mass in a gravity field. This is the exact mechanism that the theory above needs.

If antimatter would actually work that way, it would fit the bill for two additional reasons: First, there is expected to be large quantities of antimatter left over from the big bang, but no one is able to find it. If it behaves as if it has negative mass, then it would be squeezed into the voids between galaxies where it is far harder to find. Second, galactic jets spew huge quantites of matter into intergalactic space, and this is thought to include a lot of antimatter. This antimatter would expel its self into the voids between galaxies, causing the voids to grow.

The big problem with antimatter is that it would be detectable. For example, there would have to be large quantities of antimatter near our galaxy to cause the galaxy rotation that we see. A galactic halo of antimatter would look like regular matter, but any stars that are ejected out of the galaxy would plow right into it. In reality, this might not be visible, because:
a. The low density of antimatter would cause only a slight glow on the surface of a bright star.
b. A pos-star and neg-matter would repel each other, so there would be very little interaction.

This whole story is very far fetched, but it neatly explains a whole list of problems:
* Galaxies appear to spin too fast on their outer edges.
* Galaxy clusters appear to rotate too fast.
* The concave shape of galaxy clusters must be caused by outside pressure.
* Galaxies between clusters are in ribbons rather than tubes.
* Galaxies will squeeze into a disk shape, oriented parallel to the void.
* The expansion of the universe appears to be speeding up.
* As galaxies expand away from each other, the stars in a galaxy do not.
* The universe seems to be missing anti-matter.

I wrote up a galaxy cluster simulation to see if I could duplicate the actual geometry. The simulation isn't as robust as it should be, but my pos/neg version does match the actual universe more closely than the pos-only version. I can't include a screen image because a static image is very difficult to see.

Notes:
Story in Aug 2018 Sky & Telescope about the cosmic void next to the local cluster.

This is an alternate version of a theory described in New Scientist magazine in 2016.
Issue 3078, June 18, 2016
" Dark energy must die ? these rebel physicists can take it down "
By Anil Ananthaswamy
www.newscientist.com/issue/3078/